Topic: In what ways does epigraphic evidence enhance our knowledge and understanding of the imperial Roman army?

Q: In what ways does epigraphic evidence enhance our knowledge and understanding of the imperial Roman army?

The essay is about uses of epigraphy. Please illustrate the essay with examples from all branches of the army, but the same issues apply across the various branches and you don’t need to cover or discuss all of them.

References to absolutely use:
J.C. Mann ‘Epigraphic consciousness,’ JRS 75 (1985), 204-6
L.J.F. Keppie Understanding Roman Inscriptions (1991), 80-90
M.A. Speidel, ‘The Roman Army’ in C. Bruun and J. Edmondson (edd.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy (2014), 319-44
L. Keppie The Making of the Roman Army (1984)

Additional references should ONLY be from the list provided below –
1. Bibliography of the Roman Army

The following general works all have their virtues:

G. R. Watson The Roman Soldier (1969)
P. Connolly The Roman Army (1975)
G. Webster The Roman Imperial Army (3rd. ed. 1985)
Y. Le Bohec The Roman Imperial Army (1994)
P. Southern & K.R. Dixon The Late Roman Army (1996)
A. Goldsworthy The Complete Roman Army (2003)
P. Erdkamp (ed.) A Companion to the Roman Army (2007)
D.J. Breeze The Roman Army (2016)
T. Fischer Army of the Roman Emperors (2019)

The following gives an excellent description of the development of the Roman army from the Republican to the early imperial period:

L.J.F. Keppie The Making of the Roman Army (1984; 2nd ed. 1998)

Works on individual branches of the Roman army are usually excellent:

W. Kubitschek ‘Legio’ in RE XII (1925), 1186-1210
E. Ritterling ‘Legio’ in RE XII (1925), 1211-1829
H.M.D Parker The Roman Legions (1928; rev. by G.R. Watson, 1971)

G.L. Cheeseman The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army (1914)
D.B. Saddington ‘The development of the Roman Auxiliary forces from Augustus to Trajan’ in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (=ANRW) II.3 (1975), 176-201
D.B. Saddington The Development of Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian (49 BC-AD 79) (1982)
K.R. Dixon & P. Southern The Roman Cavalry (1992)
I. Haynes Blood of the Provinces: the Roman auxilia and the Making of Provincial Society (2013)

Praetorian Cohorts:
M. Durry Les cohortes prétoriennes (1938)
A. Passerini Le coorti pretorie (1939)
N.B. Rankov The Praetorian Guard (1994) (also published as Guardians of the Roman Empire)
S. Bingham The Praetorian Guard; A History of Rome’s Elite Special Forces (2013)
G. de la Bedoyère Praetoran: The Rise and Fall of Rome’s Imperial Bodyguard (2017)

Urban Cohorts:
H. Freis Die Cohortes Urbanae (Epigraphische Studien II) (1967)

P.K. Baillie Reynolds The Vigiles of Imperial Rome (1926)
R. Sablayrolles Libertinus miles. Les cohortes de vigiles (1996)

Imperial Horse Guards (Equites singulares Augusti):
M.. Speidel Die Denkmäler der Kaiserreiter (Equites Singulares Augusti) (1993)
M.P. Speidel Riding for Caesar (1994)

Text to be used on the epigraphy side:

a bibliography of the epigraphy of the Roman army:
F. Bérard et al. (edd.) Guide de l’épigraphiste (3rd. ed. 2000), 267-72

on army ranks:
A. von Domaszewski Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres (1908; rev. by B. Dobson, 1967) (a work of genius!)
on staff officers:
J. Nelis-Clément Les beneficiarii: Militaires et administrateurs au service de l’empire (Ier s.a.C-VIe s.p.C) (2000)
on military equipment:
C. Franzoni Habitus atque habitudo militis (1987)
M.C. Bishop & J.C.N. Coulston Roman Military Equipment (2nd ed. 2006)
S. James Rome and the Sword (2011)

on military decorations:
V.A. Maxfield The Military Decorations of the Roman Army (1981)

on military diplomas:

M. Roxan Roman Military Diplomas 1954-1977 (1978)

M. Roxan Roman Military Diplomas 1978-84 (1985)

M. Roxan Roman Military Diplomas 1985-93 (1994)

M. Roxan & P. Holder Roman Military Diplomas IV (2003)

Note that earlier diplomas are collected in CIL XVI.

Type of service: Academic paper writing
Type of assignment: Researchpaper
Subject: Political science
Pages/words: 12/3300
Number of sources: 5
Academic level: Undergraduate
Paper format: Harvard
Line spacing: Double
Language style: UK English

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