Topic: Nursing Research question on public health

GUIDANCE FOR ESSAY. 2000 WORDS

Formation of the research question:
Introduce your area of research interest:
This could be anything you chose, maybe link it to your public health module.
Formulate a research question using both the quantitative PICO approach and the qualitative SPIDER approach. Discuss how this changes the approach of the question through the different paradigms. 300 words
Search strategy:
Identify 2 research articles justifying the data bases that you chose to use.

Identify generic search terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria, Boolean operators and truncations.

Discuss the search findings-How many hits did you get at first, what did you do to narrow the search. Full text, English text only, date range etc.
You could use a PRISMA diagram to summarise this search as an appendix if you want to (Not compulsory) 300 words
Select 2 research papers from the search, one quantitative and one qualitative.
Identify and discuss which paradigm each paper uses, what elements of the paper helped you to identify which paradigm it used i.e. quantitative or qualitative and why?
Are there any potential biases to utilising this approach for these papers? 600 words
What are the findings of the research papers?
This could include statistical data, discussion on interventions and their success. Qualitative narrative information and analysis. How might these be important for healthcare practice? 800 words

References
Harvard cite them right, see link below for guidance.
Ensure that references in the text and in the list are accurate and currently formatted.
Not included
Appendices
Summary table for 2 research papers (Mandatory) Not included
Extended Essay Guidance
2000 word assignment
Formation of the research question: 300 words
Introduce your area of research interest: This could be anything health related topic, maybe link it to your public health module, to help combine the resources you need for this module and your public health one.
Formulate a research question on the same subject, using both the quantitative PICO approach and the qualitative SPIDER approach.
Examples could include:
PICO:
In 45-65 year old male amputees, suffering phantom limb pain (population P), is Gabapentin (Intervention I), Compared with Placebo (Comparison C), effective in decreasing pain symptoms (Outcome O)
SPIDER:
What are the experiences of middle-aged male amputees (Sample-S), experiencing phantom limb pain (phenomenon of interest PI) taking Gabapentin and its effectiveness in decreasing pain symptoms (Evaluation E). Using qualitative semi structured interviews (Design D and R Research)
Discuss how this changes the approach of the question through the different paradigms. What does it aim to capture with each approach?
Search strategy: 300 words
Identify 2 research articles (one quantitative and one qualitative, NO MIXED METHODS, there isn’t the word count to explore these sufficiently) justifying the data bases that you chose to use. Which ones did you use and why? CINAHL, MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST. Are they peer reviewed journal databases, how are the papers screened?

From your questions pick out your generic search terms:
i.e Males 45-65.
Amputee
Phantom limb pain
Gabapentin
Decreasing Pain

Think about Truncation:
Amput* Will cover amputation, amputee, amputated etc.

How would you use Boolean Operators?
AND (finds fewer)
OR (gets more)
NOT (excludes) – use carefully

You can use these words in between each of your generic terms, to look and combine them in different ways.
(“Amputation” OR Amputee”) AND (“Gabapentin” OR “Neurontin” OR “anti-epileptic drug”)
AND
(Phantom limb* OR lost limb*)
AND
(“pain reduction” OR less pain)

Discuss the search findings-How many hits did you get at first, what did you do to narrow the search e.g. Did you exclude any articles that were not full text or not written in English? Did you narrow the date range e.g. to the last 5 or 10 years? Were some articles unobtainable? Looking at the abstracts may help you to narrow down articles and select exactly what you want to read and write about.

Select 2 research papers from the search, one quantitative and one qualitative NO MIXED METHODS (there isn’t the word count available to explore these in detail). 600 words
Identify and discuss which paradigm each paper uses, what elements of the paper helped you to identify which paradigm it used i.e. quantitative or qualitative and why?
Qualitative-Small participation numbers, interviews, focus groups, thematical analysis etc.
Quantitative-Large participation numbers, statistical analysis, closed questionnaires, Likert scales etc

Are there any potential biases to utilising this approach for these papers? Consider how rigour, trustworthiness has been established in the papers (For example, reliability and validity in quantitative research and credibility and reflexivity in qualitative research. 800 words
Types of bias could include:
Researcher bias- Has the researcher influenced the outcome of the researcher in anyway?
Recall bias-When being asked about something some time ago, so the recollection of the event or experience is not always accurate.
Selection bias-the over or under representation of certain groups within a research project
Confirmation bias-This can occur when the data from the study, is interpreted by the researchers, and deemed to suggest what they want it to, rather than what it actually represents. This can be both consciously or unconsciously.
Observational bias- Observational bias occurs when participants are observed as part of a study and this alters their behaviour or responses to questions or their actual behaviour.

Publishing bias- Sometimes studies that have negative findings, such as trials that have no real significant findings are less likely to be published in journals as they are thought to not carry any significant interest.
This can then influence the knowledge that is available on this subject area and skew the understanding of the subject. E.g. Such as missing data in quantitative or meta-analysis paper on a new drug treatment, thus making it look like the drug is more effective that it actually is.

What are the findings of the research papers?
What does each paper say the outcome of the research was?
You could present these findings by interpreting and including some of the statistical data in the paper, and what results it was attached too.
E.g, Patients taking Gabapentin recorded significantly less pain and episodes of phantom limb pain (p=0.04)
You could discuss any of the interventions and their success or non-success.
You could discuss some of the Qualitative narrative information and analysis.
Patient described significantly less phantom limb pain episode when discussing their pain post amputation.
“I felt so much better after I took the Gabapentin; it’s really helped to reduce the episodes of phantom limb pain I was experiencing”
How might these be important for healthcare practice?

It could lead to more patients being prescribed Gabapentin and not experiencing phantom limb pain.

Less patient in patient bed days.

Type of service: Academic paper writing
Type of assignment: Essay
Subject: Nursing
Pages / words: 8 / 2000
Number of sources: 25
Academic level: Undergraduate
Paper format: Harvard
Line spacing: Double
Language style: UK English

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